Sociological Research Online, vol. The question whether European integration can articulate a conception of the social independent of national society is a major challenge for social theory.
Travel over land was difficult and expensive, so settlements were made along the coast, especially where rivers allowed small boats to travel inland. Distant settlements were linked by elaborate sea-based trading networks.
Since the easiest and cheapest way of long-distance travel was by sea, international trading networks emerged in the Atlantic world, with major hubs at LondonAmsterdamBostonand Havana.
Time was a factor, as sailing ships averaged about 2 knots speed 50 miles a day. Navigators had to rely on maps of currents or they would be becalmed for days or weeks. The West Coast of Africa played a special role as the source of slave labor. The main empires that built the Atlantic world were the British,  French,  Spanish Portuguese  and Dutch;  entrepreneurs from the United States played a role as well after Environmental history[ edit ] The beginning of extensive contact between Europe, Africa, and the Americas had sweeping implications for the environmental and demographic history of all the regions involved.
European and African immigrants also had very high death rates on their arrival, but they could be and were replaced by new shipments of immigrants see the Population history of American indigenous peoples.
Many foods that are common in present-day Europe, including corn maize and potatoesoriginated in the New World and were unknown in Europe before the sixteenth century. Similarly, some staple crops of present-day West Africa, including cassava and peanutsoriginated in the New World.
Some of the staple crops of Latin America, such The transformation of the concept of international societies in europe coffee and sugarcanewere introduced by European settlers in the course of the Columbian Exchange. European powers typically had vast territories that they wished to exploit through agriculture, mining, or other extractive industries, but they lacked the work force that they needed to exploit their lands effectively.
Consequently, they turned to a variety of coercive labor systems to meet their needs. At first the goal was to use native workers. Native Americans were employed through Indian slavery and through the Spanish system of encomienda. The Indians too often preferred to die of starvation rather than be slaves, so the plantation owners turned to African slaves via the Atlantic slave trade.
The concept of ‘church’ in sociology and global society: genealogy of a word and transformation of a position. International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church: Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. doi: /X The concept 'society' in social theory has generally presupposed notions of cultural cohesion and social integration associated with national societies and . Assessing the Transformation of Europe: A View from Political Science R. Daniel Kelemen and Alec Stone Sweet The Transformation of Europe [TE] is arguably the most influential paper ever published on the European Court of Justice [ECJ]. Read as political science, the importance of the piece is.
European workers arrived as indentured servants or transported felons who went free after a term of labor. Roughly three quarters of immigrants to the Americas before were African, and more than half of these Africans were originally from West or Central Africa.
In Brazil, the population percentage of Africans was even higher, with about seven African to every one Portuguese immigrant. In the early colonial period, there was a high prevalence of African spiritual practices, such as spirit possessions and healing practices.
Presumably, these practices served as a point of connection and as an identity hold for slaves hailing from the same African origin.
In many cases, European authorities viewed spiritual positions that were highly esteemed in African societies to be socially unacceptable, morally corrupt, and heretical.
This led to the disappearance or transformation of most African religious practices. For example, the practice of consulting kilundu, or Angolan spirits, was seen as homosexual by Portuguese authorities,  a clear example of Eurocentrism in colonial societies, as European ideas of religion often did not match African ones.
Unfortunately, there is a lack of documents written from the African point of view, so almost all information from this time period in these colonial societies is subject to cross-cultural misinterpretation, omission of facts, or other such changes that could affect the quality of description of African spiritual practices.
Many European nations, particularly the Netherlands and France, only managed to send a few thousand voluntary immigrants.
Though 15, or so who came to New France multiplied rapidly. In New Netherlandthe Dutch coped by recruiting immigrants of other nationalities. Brazil was last nation in the Western Hemisphere to end slavery, in Governance[ edit ] The Spanish conquistadores conquered the Aztec empire in present-day Mexico and the Inca empire in present-day Peru with ease, assisted by horses, guns, and above all by the devastating mortality inflicted by newly introduced diseases such as smallpox.
To some extent the prior emergence of the Inca and Aztec empires as regional powers aided the transfer of governance to the Spanish, since these native empires had already established road systems, state bureaucracies and systems of taxation and intensive agriculture that were in some cases inherited wholesale by the Spanish.
The early Spanish conquerors of these empires were also aided by political instability and internal conflict within the Aztec and Incan regimes, which they successfully exploited to their benefit. The result was strong government that became even stronger during the Bourbon reforms of the 18th century.
The North American Thirteen Colonies developed a system of home rule and democratic self-government. Usually only property owners could vote but since so many free men owned property a majority could and did vote.
It was the British threat against home rule, and its demand for control of taxation, that led to the American Revolution in the s. The revolutionaries in each country knew of the others and to some degree were inspired or emulated them.
In the s the Haitian Revolution broke out, with large-scale killings. With Spain tied down in European wars, the mainland Spanish colonies secured independence around They spread widely the ideals of republicanismthe overthrow of aristocracies, kings and established churches.
They emphasized the universal ideals of The Enlightenmentsuch as the equality of all men. They emphasized equal justice under law by disinterested courts, as opposed to particular justice handed down at the whim of a local noble.
They showed that the modern notion of revolution, of starting fresh with a radically new government, could actually work in practice.
Revolutionary mentalities were born and continue to flourish to the present day.The concept 'society' in social theory has generally presupposed notions of cultural cohesion and social integration associated with national societies and .
Nov 15, · To elaborate on the biophysical materiality of societies, social ecology has introduced the concept of ‘socio-metabolic regimes’.
The main difference between various socio-metabolic regimes (hunter-gatherer, agrarian mode, industrial mode) is the source of energy and the energy conversion technology (Fischer-Kowalski et al.
Social transformation implies a fundamental change in society, which can be contrasted with social change In the Hindu (Indian) concept, time was cyclical. The epochs, in the Hindu tradition, regress from the age of truth (satya yuga) to one of material- regions, changes of the local autochthonous societies.
THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, Karl Polyani, ; With a new Introduction by Fred Block [xxii-xxxv] Polanyi’s Argument: Structure and Theory. The Great Transformation is organized into three parts.
Parts One and Three focus on the immediate circumstances that produced the First World War, the Great Depression, the rise of fascism in Continental. The concept of sustainable development was endorsed by the world’s Governments at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and reaffirmed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in (Rio+20).
Jan 30, · This volume examines the property transformations in post-communist Central Eastern Europe (CEE) and focuses on the role of restitution and privatisation in such transformations.