The early history Although alum is not specifically relevant to the development of wove paper, this chemical was used by the Whatmans in the production of their celebrated high quality papers, made during the 18th C. Provided papers like these have not been exposed to a hostile environment during the two hundred and fifty years following their manufacture, we find that they are as robust as ever they were, and some much more so than many papers made today. Indeed the same applies to most other top quality papers made in this and other countries in the 16th and 17th Cs.
Although both ancient and modern Chinese are mostly written with the same characters, the modern daughter languages have become very different from the ancient one. One of the most conspicious differences is just that the terse, monosyllabic nature of Classical Chinese --"old writing," or"literary The mongols essay -- has given way to many more particles, polysyllabic words, and periphrastic idioms.
The following story, given in both Classical Chinese and a translation into modern Mandarin-- or the"colloquial speech, vernacular" -- illustrates the difference. This is also a salutary example for one's view of government, as Confucius indeed makes clear to his students [I am unaware of the provenance of this text].
The modern Mandarin pronunciation is given for the Classical characters because the ancient pronuncation, indeed the pronunciation before the T'ang Dynasty, is unknown.
Even that of the T'ang is reconstructed and uncertain. The extreme simplification of Mandarin phonology, which would render the Classical language ambiguous if used as a spoken language today too many words now being pronounced the sameexplains the polysyllablic character of the modern language and the reduction of many characters to morphemes.
The same Classical text The mongols essay can today be read as Mandarin could as well be read with Korean, Vietnamese, or Japanese versions of the Chinese words, or the Korean, Vietnamese, or Japanese translations of the words.
None of those languages is even related to Chinese, but since mediaeval, or even modern, Koreans, Vietnamese, and Japanese often wrote in Chinese, without, however, really speaking the language, their own renderings of the characters was customary.
Since the ancient pronunciation of the Classical language is unknown, Sino-Korean, Sino-Vietnamese, and Sino-Japanese reading are really just as "authentic" for Classical Chinese as a Modern Mandarin reading. Indeed, much of our evidence for the T'ang pronuncation of Chinese is from the Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese readings, which were contemporary borrowings.
For example, the character for "mountain," now read shan in Mandarin, turns up as san in Korean, in Vietnamese as so.
The Cantonese word is, of course, cognate to the Mandarin. The Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese are all borrowings from Chinese, pronounced in the local manner.
Native words for "sun" are hae in Korean, ma. The Japanese borrowed word for "sun" in isolation is nichi, but this is just the pronunciation of niti, where the final i as been added because Japanese syllables cannot end in t.
At that point different things can happen. The t can be lost in assimilation to the h, getting us Nihon, OR the h can revert to its original p, with the t getting assimilated and doubled with it, getting us Nippon.
Another example concerns the present capital of Japan.
The Vietnamese version preserves more of the Chinese consonants, but both Japanese and Vietnamese versions reveal that "capital" originally started with a k, which has become palatalized to a j in Mandarin. The k is also preserved in early modern Western versions of Chinese names, like "Nanking" and "Peking" themselves -- whose use the politically correct now have rejected because of the idea that they are "wrong" and that the local pronunciation of place names must be used -- despite such people generally being unable to correctly pronounce Nanjing or Beijing and thoughtlessly continuing to say "Rome" instead of Roma, which has been the local pronunciation of the name of that city in Italian and Latin for more than two thousand years.
Chinese departments in colleges sometimes expect students to learn Mandarin even though they only want to read Classical Chinese or Sino-Korean, Sino-Vietnamese, or Sino-Japanese.
This imposes a vast unnecessary burden on them, but even some teachers and scholars of Chinese sometimes have trouble accepting that the ancient language is not the modern one and that the ancient language is part of the civilization of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan as much as of modern China.Archery: Archery, sport involving shooting arrows with a bow, either at an inanimate target or in hunting.
From prehistoric times, the bow was a principal weapon of war and of the hunt throughout the world, except in Australia.
It looks like you've lost connection to our server. Please check your internet connection or reload this page. There were many great warriors throughout the Middle Ages, however none so prominent as the Mongols. While the Carolingian “war machine” conquered a sizable expanse of land, it was a miniscule feat when compared to the enormous empire the Mongols ultimately created. Jul 30, · Ah, but super-human AI is not the only way Moloch can bring our demise. How many such dangers can your global monarch identify in time? EMs, nanotechnology, memetic contamination, and all the other unknown ways we’re running to the bottom.
Recreational archery also was practiced, along with military, among the ancient. January Have you ever seen an old photo of yourself and been embarrassed at the way you looked? Did we actually dress like that?
We did. And we had no idea how silly we looked. Jul 06, · Vladimir Putin famously described the loss of the Soviet empire as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe” of the 20th century. As nostalgia surges for . Site Index. Introduction & Recurring Sources; About the author; FAQ; Alphabetical Index of Wars, Oppressions and other Multicides A-J; K-Z; Multicides of the 20th Century, Grouped By Size.
The Mongols Page Two. Founding of the Mongol Empire by: Henry Howorth. Genghis Khan. The Yuan. Akbar and India.
Mongols in China (Marco Polo) The Mongols. sweet flag / bitterroot Acorus calamus, A. americanus. I probably know calamus more deeply than any other plant I’ve worked with, yet in spite of that (or perhaps because of it) I find it most difficult to capture what I know of it in a way that adequately conveys its essential nature; its medicine.