Growth and decline

April 2, The Future of World Religions: Over the next four decades, Christians will remain the largest religious group, but Islam will grow faster than any other major religion. If current trends continue, by … The number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world.

Growth and decline

Dependency ratio and Pensions crisis The effects of a declining population can be adverse for an economy which has borrowed extensively for repayment by younger generations. However, population growth is also becoming increasingly unsustainable due to global warming, which is expected to have harsh economic consequences.

Economically declining populations are thought to lead to deflation [ citation needed ], which has a number of effects. However, Russia, whose economy has been rapidly growing 8. But for many industrial economies, the opposite might be true as those economies often thrive on mortgaging the future by way of debt and retirement transfer payments that originally assumed rising tax revenues from a continually expanding population base i.

However, standard of living does not necessarily correlate with quality of lifewhich may increase as the population declines due to presumably reduced pollution and consumption of natural resources, and the decline of social pressures and overutilization of resources that can be linked to overpopulation.

There may also be reduced pressure on infrastructureeducation, and other services as well. The period immediately after the Black Death, for instance, was one of great prosperity, as people had inheritances from many different family members. However, that situation Growth and decline not comparable, as it did not have a continually declining population, but rather a sudden shock, followed by population increase.

What’s Driving the Decline in U.S. Population Growth? – Population Reference Bureau

Predictions of the net economic and other effects from a slow and continuous population decline e. A declining population due to low fertility rates will also be accompanied by population ageing which can contribute problems for a society.

This can adversely affect the quality of life for the young as an increased social and economic pressure in the sense that they have to increase per-capita output in order to support an infrastructure with costly, intensive care for the oldest among their population.

The focus shifts away from the planning of future families and therefore further degrades the rate of procreation. The decade-long economic malaise of Japan and Germany in the s and early s is often linked to these demographic problems, though there were also several other causes.

The worst-case scenario is a situation where the population falls too low a level to support a current social welfare economic system, which is more likely to occur with a rapid decline than with a more gradual one. The economies of both Japan and Germany both went into recovery around the time their populations just began to decline — In other words, both the total and per capita GDP in both countries grew more rapidly after than before.

Such renewed growth calls into question the conventional wisdom that economic growth requires population growth, or that economic growth is impossible during a population decline. However, it may be argued that this renewed growth is in spite of population decline rather than because of it, and economic growth in these countries would potentially be greater if they were not undergoing such demographic decline.

For example, Russia has become quite wealthy selling fossil fuels such as oil, which are now high-priced, and in addition, its economy has expanded from a very low nadir due to the economic crisis of the late s.

And although Japan and Germany have recovered somewhat from having been in a deflationary recession and stagnation, respectively, for the past decade, their recoveries seem to have been quite tepid. Both countries fell into the global recession of —, but are now recovering once again, being among the first countries to recover.

For example, Japan has a higher growth per capita than the United States, even though the U. A declining population regardless of the cause can also create a labor shortagewhich can have a number of positive and negative effects. While some labor-intensive sectors of the economy may be hurt if the shortage is severe enough, others may adequately compensate by increased outsourcing or automation.

Initially, the labor participation rates which are low in many countries can also be increased to temporarily reduce or delay the shortage. On the positive side, such a shortage increases the demand for labor, which can potentially result in a reduced unemployment rate as well as higher wages.

Conversely, a high population means labor is in plentiful supply, which usually means wages will be lower. This is seen in countries like China and India.

Analysing data for 40 countries, Lee et al. However, fertility near replacement and population stability would be most beneficial for standards of living when the analysis includes the effects of age structure on families as well as governments.

And fertility moderately below replacement and population decline would maximize standards of living when the cost of providing capital for a growing labour force is taken into account. Technology and resources often play more significant roles.

National efforts to reverse declining populations[ edit ] Further information: Human population planning Many European countries, including FranceItalyGermany and Polandhave offered some combination of bonuses and monthly payments to families.

Paid maternity and paternity leave policies can also be used as an incentive. Sweden built up an extensive welfare state from the s and onward, partly as a consequence of the debate following Crisis in the Population Questionpublished in Today, Sweden has extensive parental leave where parents are entitled to share 16 months paid leave per child, the cost divided between both employer and State.

Alternative concept relative to skills[ edit ] Main article: Brain drain Sometimes the concept of population decline is applied where there has been considerable emigration of skilled professionals. In such a case, the government may have ceased to reward or value certain skills e.

Such characterizations have been made of ItalyBulgaria and Russia in the period starting about Business growth and decline stages of the business life cycle: establishment, growth, maturity, post-maturity responding to challenges at each stage of the business life cycle.

M2- Growth and Decline of Sectors In the UK there are three sectors. These are the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The primary sector and the secondary sectors are declining due to a number of reasons such as cheaper imports and the increasing use of technology, taking over jobs which used to be done by hand, e.g.

milking cows. Apr 02,  · In the United States, Christians will decline from more than three-quarters of the population in to two-thirds in , and Judaism will no longer be the largest non-Christian religion. Muslims will be more numerous in the U.S.

Population Growth and Decline

than people who identify as Jewish on the basis of religion. Ongoing growth in both regions will fuel global. BackgroundTracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow.

Population Growth and Decline in City Neighborhoods. Secondary tabs. Overview (active tab) Full Report; Population Growth and Decline in City Neighborhoods.

To reuse content from Urban Institute, visit, search for the publications, choose from a list of licenses. The decline in U.S. population growth is likely due to a confluence of factors: lower levels of immigration, population aging, and declining fertility rates.

Growth and decline

A drop in net immigration to the United States is a key factor in the country’s declining population growth rate.

The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, | Pew Research Center